Woollarawarre Bennelong was the first Aboriginal man to visit Europe and return. He was born on the south shore of the Parramatta River around 1764. In late November 1789, Governor Arthur Phillip had orders from King George III to use “every possible means” to open dialogue with the natives. Since none had ventured into Sydney Cove, he resorted to abduction. Bennelong was about 25 years old when he was taken from Manly Cove and rowed across to Sydney Cove.
At the time, Bennelong was described as strongly made, with a “bold intrepid countenance, which bespoke of defiance and revenge”. Within three months he was communicating well with the Governor, but in May he escaped.
In September he was spotted among a group of Aborigines at Manly, and one of them wounded Governor Phillip with a spear. The attack was either a misunderstanding or ‘payback’ for Bennelong’s earlier incarceration. But not long after, he appeared in Sydney Cove asking after the governor’s health. Once assured he wouldn’t be detained, he began spending more time there as did other Aborigines. As Bennelong learned English, he became a go-between and interpreter for the governor, and Phillip had a small house built for him on what is now Bennelong Point.
In December 1792, Bennelong sailed for England with his young friend Yemmerrawanne and Governor Phillip. They were presented to King George III and visited attractions like the Tower of London and museums, and went to the theatre. After a year, Yemerrawanne died of a chest infection and Bennelong became homesick. It wasn’t until September 1795 that he was back in his beloved country after being away for nearly three years.
He maintained his ‘European’ ways for a while but in time returned to traditional life. This didn’t sit well with some, who wrote harshly of his inability to maintain the ‘civilised’ ways. Instead Bennelong chose to live within his own culture, fighting tribal battles and becoming a respected Elder.
He died at Kissing Point on 3 January 1813 and was buried therewith his last wife, Boorong. Bennelong was remembered as courageous, intelligent, vain and quick-tempered but was said to be good with children and something of a comedian.
From a cave 2,000 metres under the Earth, wooden huts in the Antarctic, to the heat of the Australian sun, Trailblazers: Australia’s 50 greatest explorers will take visitors across Australia, around the globe, into outer space and back.
Created by the Australian Museum and curated by Antarctic adventurer and author Howard Whelan, the exhibition brings together 29 historic and 21 modern adventurers and explorers. Learn more here.