Penguins predominately live in the Southern Hemisphere since they are well adapted for the cold. However, the Galapagos and fairy penguin along with other small penguins are more likely to be found in warmer climates closer to the equator.
The largest penguin is the emperor penguin, which grows to the size of a human child weighing in at 35 kilograms. The smallest penguin can be found here in Australia and is appropriately named the fairy penguin, weighing only 1 kilogram.
During the breeding season penguins usually stay with one mate and share the parenting duties. The female emperor penguin will lay a single egg, while all other penguins usually lay two or three. The male emperor penguin is then responsible for caring for the egg until and after it hatches.
It is believed that penguins could once fly but have evolved flippers instead of wings to be able to move rapidly through the water. Their streamlined bodies and waterproof coat make them extremely agile hunters underwater.
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