Istanbul's Hagia Sophia: Problems with construction
Jutting from the main supporting piers are a set of projections that were added in later centuries. When it became clear that the piers were still being pushed outwards. These were intended to deflect the outward thrust of the piers down into the ground. In effect, they acted like buttresses found in Gothic architecture... Buttresses were added as early as the ninth century, more in the 13th century, and possibly by the Ottoman Turks after 1453. But the damage had been done.
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