Established: August 1, 1916
Size: 130,888 hectares
Annual Visitors: 2 million
Visitor Centres: Kilauea, daily 9am to 5pm
Entrance Fees: AU $36 per vehicle, $17.50 per person
Exploring Hawaii Volcanoes National Park, on the Big Island of Hawaii, is like stepping foot on another planet.
Recent lava flows stretch out for miles in a rocky wasteland that more closely resembles the Moon than Earth. Huge waves send sea spray dozens of feet into the air along the wild, craggy coastline. Endangered birds waddle across the path on an ascent up the world’s largest single mountain. If the timing is right, catch a natural fireworks show of lava pouring into the ocean or of plumes of molten rock arching above one of the planet’s rare lava lakes.
Two celebrated volcanoes—one of them very tall, the other very active—frame this large national park. From glowing lava flows and earth-shaking tremors to wind, rain, and waves, the geological and meteorological forces that shaped our planet are fully on display on the Big Island. While volcanism rules the day, pockets of rainforest and grassland shelter rare Hawaiian flora and fauna.
“Double, double toil and trouble; fire burn and caldron bubble.” Shakespeare could just as easily have been describing Hawaiian volcanoes rather than a witch’s brew in Macbeth. No other national park produces so much drama on a regular basis.
Erupting from 1983 to 2018, Kilauea is one of the world’s most active volcanoes. Its monthslong 2018 event destroyed hundreds of homes, sent massive plumes of ash rocketing into the air, and collapsed nearly 610 metres of the crater’s summit before the volcano subsided into its first period of inactivity in 35 years—though bubbling magma under the rifts and summit promise another future explosion.
It abuts the southeastern slope of the older and much larger Mauna Loa, or “long mountain.” Active for some 700,000 years, Mauna Loa towers 4,169 metres above the sea. Measured from its base 5,486 metres below sea level, it exceeds Mount Everest in height. Mauna Loa's gently sloping bulk—some 79,195 cubic kilometres in volume—makes it the planet's most massive single mountain.
Hike the Ala Kahakai National Historic Trail to see tide pools formed over the remains of old lava flows.
PHOTOGRAPH BY JACOB W. FRANK, GETTY IMAGES
The national park stretches from sea level to Mauna Loa’s summit. Beyond the end of the road lies Mauna Loa's wilderness area, where backpackers encounter freezing nights and rough lava trails amid volcanic wonders: barren lava twisted into nightmarish shapes, cinder cones, gaping pits. Kilauea, however, provides easy access to a greater variety of scenery and cultural sites.
On the slopes of Kilauea, whose name means “spreading, much spewing,” lush green rainforest borders stark, recent lava flows. This natural laboratory of ecological change displays all stages of forest regeneration—from early regrowth of lichens and ferns to dense forest. The rainforest on the windward side of Kilauea's summit gives way to the stark, windswept Kau Desert on the hot, dry southwestern slope. At the shore, waves create lines of jagged cliffs; periodic eruptions send fresh lava flows to meet the sea amid colossal clouds of steam.
Sinabung volcano in western Indonesia slumbered for some 400 years before roaring awake in August 2010. Since then, its fiery rampages—as shown here in April 2015—are a reminder of its location on the so-called ring of fire. This disjointed zone of tectonic plate collisions around the Pacific Ocean hosts about 75 per cent of the world’s active volcanoes.
PHOTOGRAPH BY TIBTA PANGIN, ANADOLU AGENCY/GETTY IMAGES
Geological dynamism forms the park’s primary natural theme, followed closely by evolutionary biology. Thousands of unique species have evolved on the isolated Hawaiian islands. Cultural sites abound as well, reminders of the Polynesian pioneers who steered their great double-hulled canoes to Hawaii beginning some 1,500 years ago.
The United Nations has named the park both an international biosphere reserve and a World Heritage site. Many of the park’s intriguing native plants and animals, however, are in peril, defenseless against alien species including weedy invasive plants and feral pigs. The native species are carefully protected by the park, which has fenced the park’s borders off from feral pigs and taken efforts to eradicate invasive weeds.
Two outstanding auto routes provide easy access to the park’s main attractions. Crater Rim Drive hugs the edge of Kilauea Caldera and leads to viewpoints where visitors can gaze into the belly of the beast and inhale its pungent sulfur scent (though sections of the road remain closed after the 2018 eruption). Near the start of the route, the park Visitor Centre offers exhibits and important safety information, as well as an excellent film, “Born of Fire, Born of the Sea.”
Across the road, Volcano House (1846) is one of the oldest lodges in the entire National Park System; the back terrace is a great place to get your first glimpse of the crater. Located in another historic structure, Volcano Art Center offers classes and workshops, a gallery dedicated to local artists, hula performances, and free guided hikes into the Niaulani rainforest.
The 2018 eruption events closed the park temporarily—but even after it reopened, some locations remain shuttered indefinitely. Damaged by eruption-related earthquakes, the Jaggar Museum of volcanology will likely not reopen. Also closed: Kilauea Iki Crater and Nahuku Thurston Lava Tube. Check the official park site for updates. As no surface lava is currently flowing in the park, sightseeing boat tours—which once offered the chance to watch molten lava hiss and steam as it met the ocean at Kamokuna—are likewise inactive.
In the meantime, explore Chain of Craters Road, which meanders 32 kilometres through tortuous volcanic landforms between Kilauea Caldera and Holei Sea Arch. Numerous places en route beg a stop, including lofty Kealakomo Overlook, the Martian-like landscape of Mau Loa o Mauna Ulu lava field, and the boardwalk trail that leads to the Pu‘u Loa Petroglyphs, where more than 23,000 images were rendered by native Hawaiians between 1200 and 1450.
Reaching the summit of Mauna Loa is a herculean effort. A narrow, paved road ascends to a lookout point at 2,030 metres. The rest of the route is on foot, a 26-kilometre trail that quickly morphs from native woodland into lava rock wilderness. Most people undertake the trek over four days, with overnights in national park mountain huts.
The park’s other iconic backcountry hike is the Kau Desert Trail, a rugged 29-kilometretrek that leads from the trailhead off of Highway 11 across undulating lava fields to Hilina Pali cliffs and overnight campsites along the Pacific coast like Halape with its sandy beaches and coconut grove.
Where to stay
Hotels: Inside the park, the historic Volcano House has long captivated guests; recently renovated, it perches on the rim of Kilauea caldera, offering stunning views and a unique perspective. The elegant Volcano Village Lodge sits just over three kilometres outside of the park.
Camping: There are two drive-in campgrounds in Hawaii Volcanoes National Park, Namakanipaio and Kulanaokuaiki.The former offers rustic, but charming, camping cabins.
Mauna Kea National Natural Landmark: At 4,207 feet, this volcano is the nation’s highest insular mountain, as well as the highest point in Hawai‘i. Onizuka Center for International Astronomy facilitates public stargazing on the peak.
Ala Kahakai National Historic Trail: This 282-kilometre coastal route around the Big Island features eight sites significant to native Hawai‘ian culture and history, including Pu’uhonua o Ho¯naunau and Kaloko-Honoko¯hau national historical parks.
Pu‘u O Umi Natural Area Reserve: Perched on the Big Island’s north shore, this remote reserve harbours 13 native ecosystems including rare montane bog and ‘ohi’a forest.
Hawaii Tropical Botanical Garden: Just north of Hilo, this almost seven-hectare preserve showcases more than 2,000 plant species including palms, bromeliads, and heliconias.
Lead Image: With a hiss of steam, lava flowed from the park into the Pacific Ocean in January 2017. Similar flows of molten rock have built up the Hawaiian Islands over the course of more than 70 million years.
PHOTOGRAPH BY PATRICK KELLEY, NAT GEO IMAGE COLLECTION